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We performed this lab last week. The main idea of it was to develop an understanding of the process of DNA->RNA->Protein->Trait. To accomplish this, we worked with a safe strand of E. coli and pGLO plasmid DNA. In order to see if the E. coli cells had been transformed, we used Green Flourescent Protein, and we knew if the cells had accepted the pGLO, then they would show up as flourescent green when put underneath a UV light.


1. Set up two test tubes with the following labels: +pGLO, and -pGLO

2. add 250 µl of transformation solution (CaCl2) to both tubes

3. place the tubes on ice

4. put a single colony of bacteria into each tube

5. incubate the tubes for 10 minutes on ice

6. label four agar plates on the bottom as: +pGLO LB/amp/ara, +pGLO LB/amp, -pGLO LB/amp, and -ppGLO LB.

7. perform a heat shock on the test tubes, then remove the tubes from the ice and hadd 250 µl of LB nutrient to both tubes

8. pipet 100 µl of the solutions onto the appropriate plates

9. spread around the solutions evenly on the plates and then stack, and put into the incubator.


10. After 24 hours, look at the dishes under a UV light and calculate the number of colonies



Infographic: The Risk of Lung Cancer with Smoking


Extracting DNA From Wheat Germ Lab

For our lab today we extracted DNA from wheat germ.

The first step was to measure 1 gram of wheat germ into a graduated cylinder.

The next step was to put 20 ml of hot water (~55˚ C) into the graduated cylinder with the wheat germ.

Next we added 1 pipet of detergent to the cylinder. The purpose of this was to further break up the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane in order for the DNA to come out.

We then stirred for five more minutes for the detergent in order for more dissolving to occur.

After the detergent had spread out, we slowly poured cold alcohol on top of the wheat germ solution in order to pull the DNA out of the wheat germ.

The next step was to wait 15 days so that the DNA could surface in the alcohol.

After the 15 minute wait, we attempted to spool the DNA similar to how you would spool cotton candy but accidentally ruined it. So instead we observed another experiment in our class.

Photosynthesis Discovery Lab

lab topic 7 brochure

The bioluminescent Atolla Wyvillei

The Atolla Wyvillei is more commonly known as the Alarm Jellyfish, and is known for its ability to turn a striking, bioluminescent orange. Unfortunately, not very much is known about the Atolla Wyvillei because it lives in deep-water habitats. As the jelly swims, (as you can see in the Youtube clip below), you can see that it has twenty or so, short but somewhat stiff tentacles that trail behind. This beautiful creature becomes bioluminescence generally only once it has been caught by a predator, in hope that its wild appearance will attract something bigger that will perhaps eat its predator, this explains it being called the “alarm jellyfish”. All in all this creature is amazing, and the idea that it could become bioluminescent is just as incredible as why it does.

Works Cited:

“Atolla.” The JelliesZone – Jellyfish & Other Gelatinous Zooplankton. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. .

“Glowing in the Dark Atolla Image.” ScienceNOW- NOVA. Web. 29 Nov. 2011..

Reproduction and Inheritance of the Hydra

The hydra is very interesting, it generally reproduces asexually by developing buds off of the main body that eventually break away from the original hydra to form a new one, but it also sexually reproduces.

This illustration shows the sexual reproduction cycle of the hydra. (

Hydra Sexual Reproduction occurs often in harsh environments or ones without an excess of food:

1. Budding: The first step in the hydra reproduction cycle is the budding, during this step the Hydra becomes ready to reproduce.

2. Release of Sperm: The second step in this cycle is the release of the sperm from the male hydra. The sperm is released out of the males gonad, which is a sexual organ used for development of the sperm in male hydra.

3. Sperm Meets Egg in Female Hydra: The next step in this cycle is when the sperm meets the egg in a gonad also known as the ovaries of a female hydra making a fertilized egg.

4. Release of the Egg: The next step of this cycle is the release of the egg, the female hydra releases the egg generally as she begins to die.

5. Development of the Embryo: The final step of this process is the development of the embryo, first it grows to become a encapsulated embryo, before becoming a young polyp and eventually once again a budding hydra.

This diagram shows the assexual reproduction cycle of hydra. (

Hydra asexual reproduction of the hydra occurs generally in environments with an excess of food:

1. Beginning of Bud: The first step of the hydra asexual reproduction is the begining of the bud, during this process, the first signs of a bud begin to show.

2. Tenticles Begin to Grow: This is the next step in this process, the tenticles and the mouth of the new hydra begin to develop.

3. Beginning of Separation of New Hydra: This next step is the process of the begining of separation of the bud from the original hydra. At this step the new hydra is generally around one half the size of the parent.

4. Breaking off of the New Hydra: This is the final step in the hydra asexual reproduction cycle, during this step the new hydra breaks off from the parent, making an entirely new hydra, this new hydra is generally 3/5 of the size of the new hydra.


“Information on Hydra.” Offwell Woodland & Wildlife Trust, British Wildlife & Countryside. Environmental Education. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.

“Hydra and Other Cnidarians.” The Biology Corner. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.

“Hydra | Developmental Biology Interactive.” Developmental Biology Interactive | A Learning Resource by Students for Students. Web. 15 Nov. 2011.

Wanted Dead or Alive: Cilia

Wanted Dead or Alive: Cilium